In Agriculture farming, a lot of production is lost each year due to pests worldwide. Among such species are Nematodes that have an assorted response in crop growth. The microscopic creatures are abruptly present in marine, freshwater, and the soil; moreover, it has adopted every ecosystem.
These are commonly known as roundworms with almost 15000 identified species with thousands of breeds that are not harmful and others that represent significant constraints on global food security. Thus, depending upon its kind, it may be beneficial or jeopardize the plant's health.
They are classified into three groups Bacterial-feeders, Fungal-feeders & Plant parasites. The difference between good and bad ones is only based on the host they attack, Few species strick underground plant, whereas few go for aerial parts.
Over 4100 types of Plant-Parasitices have been discovered; among them, the most harmful ones are Root-knot, Cyst, and lesion Nematodes. They alone or, in combination with other soil microorganisms, bombard all the portion of a plant.
Potential crop loss each year is at least $80-118 billion globally due to them.
Most affected crops are Wheat, Rice, Maize, potatoes, and soybean. In The US, each year, soybean yields lose $1 billion due to the damage caused by cyst nematode.
Along with wheat, it also damages oat and barley. An estimated 3.4 million profits is mislaid in cultivating states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
For rice, these are ranked as one of the most damaging as it accounts for annual yield loss of 10-25% worldwide and a wide distribution of effects has been reported in Louisiana & Texas. Also, approximately 10% of sweet potato yield are lost each year.
Nematode association in corn may cause economic losses in yields up to 60% in the three largest producer regions that is North America, Asia & Europe.
These small worms damage the crops and plants respond with swelling, distorted growth & dead areas that degrades its economic value completely.
In the US alone, an estimated loss of $1.28 billion is caused only by a specie called H.Glycines. Another one that originated in South America is spread through 55 more countries. Production drop of potato due to another variety known as G.Pallida can range from 50 to 80% if not appropriately managed.
On the other hand, some free soil nematodes play a significant role in the decomposition of organic matter and are beneficial to plants. Few of them are proven to be valuable allies in biological control of other pests.