Genetically modified organisms are made when their hereditary materials are altered using Genetic Engineering Techniques.
GM crops are mostly used in agriculture to introduce new traits in plants which does not or can not occur naturally. Such as the development of resistance to certain pests, diseases and chemical treatments, Adaptation of particular environmental conditions, or importing the nutrient profile of the crop.
In 2014 an analysis concluded that this technology adoption has reduced the use of chemical pesticides by 37%, increased yield, and farmer's profit by 22% and 68% respectively.
These modifications were only developed in the ’70s but since 8000 BCE we used traditional methods such as selective and cross-breeding for wanted results.
In 1920 the first hybrid Corn was sold.
In 1970 Herbert Boyer & Stanley Cohen developed genetic engineering.
In 1990 the first GMO produced Tomato was available for sale. In the same period, various such experiments were done on summer Squash, Soybean, Cotton, Corn, Papayas, Potato & Canola.
In early 2000 WHO & FAO came up with international guidelines & standards to determine the safety of GMO food.
By 2017-19 GMO apples were available in the market in the US and the FDA completed a consultation on food from genome-edited plants.
Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, and became the first and major producer company of genetically engineered crops. Later down the line it became one of the most hated companies by allegations of unfair and tight control over GM seed supply and had faced questions about its products and finally, it winded up the business under its name in 2018.
GMO is relatively new, thus, it has attracted conflicting viewpoints about issues surrounding the use of plants.
There is not yet any data submitted that indicated it is bad for human consumption. The National Academy of Science, USA concluded that they are safe for human health. The same conclusion has been drawn by several Prestigious Health & Science organizations from around the world.
According to a publication in SITN Harvard graduate school of Art & Science, there was no relationship found between GMOs and mutation. Fertility, pregnancy, offspring, organ health & functions were unaffected by it, and no evidence for gene transfer between GMOs and consumers was found.
Today, Canola, Cotton, Maize, Soybean, Beet Sugar, Eggplant and few more are cultivated as GMO some only for animal feed others for human consumption. commodities such as potato, rice and tomato are withdrawn from such production.
The legal status of GM crops and food differs from country to country with some nations restricting or banning them while others permitting them. These kinds of crops have been in a lot of controversies and impacted public image due to its full or partial ban in 38 countries.
GMO has always been a debatable matter throughout its development and its use by humans for consumption has always been subjective.