One of the most popular plants in the world, Coffee which takes at least four years to grow for proper production.
The berries go through a lengthy processing cycle of picking, washing, pulping, drying & roasting to make Coffee. Five hundred billion cups every year, that's the world's consumption for the beverage, which is grown by millions of farmers across Latin America, Africa & Asia.
In the early 20th century, Americans & Europeans were buying Coffee to a large extent resulting in higher prices, creating a boom in Coffee producing countries. This bubble busted in 1929 when the US economy crashed, demand & cost of Coffee ultimately went down, bankrupting the plantations.
Today, the crisis of Climate change is revolving around the world coffee production.
Two of the most commonly consumed variety that grows commercially in the farms are Robusta & Arabica the former has a bitter taste using to make espresso & instant Coffee. At the same time, the latter is smooth and mild and is used for high-quality beverage making companies such as Starbucks.
Both species require specific kinds of climatic conditions to grow. Arabica being more sensitive, if the climate is too hot or too cold or too much or too little rainfall, berries won't grow correctly.
In light of climate change, the warming of the planet is shrinking the area of its production. Its impact is visible in Colombia, one of the biggest global producers; according to the local grower's yield is falling continuously each year, and since 2013 the amount of land used to grow Coffee in the region has fallen by more than 7%.
Zona Cafetera, Colombia's coffee region where farmers grow and process it by hand, is one of the reasons why Colombian Coffee has been considered the best in the world for over a century.
Still, today, climate change has started showing its effects as Greenhouse Gas emissions have warmed the region by 1.2 ֯C since 1980, destroying the plants that grow in low elevation, leaving them to overheat and produce lower quality beans same has happened in Villa Gloria Farm.
The Zona Cafetera region is projected to warm by 0.3֯ per decade and see more extreme weather if in fact Coffee growing regions everywhere are going to be affected.
The warmer climate has also given rise to pests and fungi at Santa Fe Farm. In El Oasis farm, changing weather patterns have made it hard to predict the lifecycle of the coffee plant.
A recent study estimates by 2050, the amount of land that can sustain coffee cultivation will be reduced by 50%. At the same time, 60% of wild coffee specie could be at the risk of extension because of climate change.
There are several ways farmers can protect their coffee, Such as using shade trees that keep the plants cool & stabilize the soil or by moving the crop uphill where its cooler or switch to more resistant varieties of coffee plants. But these solutions might require a capital investment.
Due to various reasons, coffee prices began to fluctuate. Frequently falling below for many farmers need to break even. On top of that, Climate change is why it is one of the biggest crises for farmers.